Abia State has 17 local government areas (LGAs). They are:
- Aba North
- Aba South
- Isiala Ngwa North
- Isiala Ngwa South
- Obi Ngwa
- Osisioma Ngwa
- Ukwa East
- Ukwa West
- Umuahia North
- Umuahia South
The Local Government Chairman who is the Chief Executive Officer of the local government heads each of the seventeen LGAs in the state. A Secretary, Supervisory Councilors and Councilors usually assist him. Most local government councils in the state have five departments viz: Administration, Agriculture, Health, Education and Works.
The administrative headquarters of the local government area is located in one of the urban or semi urban areas within the local government area. High courts are found in Aba and Ohafia local government areas as well as Umuahia, the state capital. Magistrate courts are located in Aba, Arochukwu, Ohafia, Bende, Isiukwuato and Ukwa LGAs. Customary courts are also found in Ukwa, Isiukwuato, Bende, Ohafia, and Arochukwu LGAs. Each autonomous community has a traditional head, the Eze that has been identified, selected, appointed and installed by the people according to their own tradition and presented to the government for recognition.
Selection may be hereditary, elective or rotatory. For such an Eze to be recognized, the local government chairman has to endorse the documents presented to him by the Eze before for- warding the documents to the governor for recognition. The Eze also has to be presented by the autonomous community at an appointed date and time to the governor or his representative, for recognition.
The government also appoints one Eze from each autonomous community. An election is usually conducted amongst recognized Ndi Ezes for each local government to select members to serve at the council of Ndi Eze at the state level.
About half of the members of the council are select- ed while half are appointed. Every member of the council of Ndi Eze is required to serve for three years unless prevented from doing so by death or resignation. The council of Ndi Eze in Abia State is made up of 36 Ezes with one chairman and two deputy chairmen.